(c) 2007 Rick Orli
Detail of Tugh in the Turkenbeute, showing details of knotwork 'hitching'.
Tughs were often in color, but also black & white. The Tatar tugh in Czestochowa Armory is also black&white.
ancient mongol tughs.
My tugh project: Not hitched, rather woven.
The best single source on tughs and their history is Zugulski' Art in the Service of the Ottoman Empire.
Tughs were quite ancient, used among Turkmen and Mongolian peoples. In the early Ottoman period, the Ottoman Emir used 2 tughs, and all other field officers and Beys used 1.
Later, the Sultan used 7, the grand vizer 5, beylerBeys 2, Beys and Orta commanders 1.