Ottoman Firepower

Illustrations from 1680s-1705, From Marsigli's 1735 State of the Ottoman Empire.

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Janissary Kit, 1550-1700:
•Short saber
•Heavy matchlock musket “fitilli tufenk” ; orF_Tulfek.jpg (185820 bytes)
•Szakallas (Hungarian) hook gun or hackenbuch
•Patilla or miquelet lock 
   –(Miquelet is Spanish mounted fusilier, so this term would not have been used at that time
 

“fitilli (matchlock) tufenk (musket)”  Pictured is a 20mm/.77 that is 120CM long) Some key features are:

1) Cannon mouth

2) Dropping (angled down) butt stock; no plate on the butt base

3) Scouring stick (ramrod) channel entirely within stock

4) the stylized flower-like design on the stock seems fairly typical, but not universal.

5) Trigger is small knob, no trigger guard.

CakmakliTufek16th19mm132cmS.jpg (33708 bytes)

Patella Lock 16-17thC. 19MM, 132CM long

NMA5569ES347.jpg (29294 bytes)

Marsigli (1732) Stato Militare dell Imperio Ottomono : Mid 16th C. muskets were `9 palms long' and had a range of 500 to 600 paces, according to reports during the Siege of Malta. Balbi said "we see
the Turkish arqubusers and their most excellent gunpowder shoots much further than ours and have much more penetration because they are longer and have better gunpowder.:
In 1680s…
Marsigli : "….The Turks relied on Christians for their firearms and that the firearm carried by the Turkish soldier is a much heavier musket than any other and takes a ball of 6,9, 12, 15, 25 drams; and
this is a matchlock. Another gun is very similar to the Spanish type but with a different mechanism… (Patella/miquelet lock). The third is the smallest and can be used in one hand is a pistol made like the
(Spanish-like) gun and takes bullets of 4,6,8 drams. The ottoman muskets were much too heavy to carry on campaign or to shoot without a rest, and the musketeer was forced to step back to
absorb the recoil."

(I don't get it… 25 drams =1.6 ounce and is a big but not huge .77.
6 drams is a glorified BB gun. What does the author mean by
6,8,12,15,25? )
 Conversions: 26 mm= 1 ; 20 mm=.77; 16 mm=.62

 

OttoMusket1s.jpg (1042841 bytes)

OttoMusket2B.jpg (592734 bytes)wallgunS.JPG (34388 bytes)

Right is our reproduction of the wall gun, in 1.1 inch caliber. (regular matchlock musket below) By John Buck of Musketmart.

OttoMusket2.jpg (876785 bytes)

MusketPict.jpg (357646 bytes)

OttoMorter.jpg (317478 bytes)

PowderTrain.jpg (82069 bytes)

weapons.jpg (113411 bytes)

weapons3.jpg (48404 bytes)

tent.jpg (151892 bytes)

 

Artillery

light artillery was made of bronze and was called stirrup
artillery. Bernier described 70 light cannon each the size of a
double musket attached to the back of the camel, much in the same
manner as swivels are fixed in our barks. Zambarak (little hornet)
Darzani was the light ottoman falconet. The "Artillery of the
Stirrup " …fifty or sixty small field pieces, each piece mounted on
a well-made and handsomely painted carriage, containing two
ammunition chests, one behind and another in front , ornamented with
red streamers. The carriage, with the driver, was drawn by two fine
horses and attended by a third horse, led by and assistant driver as
a relay.

Iban Zungal, 1520s, small Ottoman cannon darbzmuet which are
protected with covers of red felt and carried in wagons with a team
of four horses. The ammunition boxes are suspended from the
underside of the wagon and contains balls just large enough to fill
the palm of the hand.

54mm = 2.13 = 2pdr

64mm =2.5 = 3pdr

80mm=3.1=4pdr