Hungarian  16-17th C. Military and Civilian Dress

Referencing:

Fashions Costume uniform  1600 

 

 

Military Uniform Article

Polish Dress  17th C. (Polski Ubior) M.B.

 

Polish Military and Men's Dress

Polish/Ukrainian/Cossack Dress

Turkish  Costume

Muscovite dress

Gypsy/Roma Dress

Patterns (Details on Design and Construction) (

Costume details and Domestic items Page, e.g. buttons, belts, mugs, chairs

Illustrations from 

Maria Gutkowska-Rychlewsk a,  Historia Ubiorow

Hun101.jpg (17004 bytes) Hungarian ambassador to court of Maxmillian I, 1525; hanging sleeves, tied in back with a belt.  

Hun102.jpg (38608 bytes)  Delia without collar, with pentlicami (passamentre button-lace);   Delia with hood as large collar

Hun2.jpg (62761 bytes) short richly decorated doloman with pentlicami; end of 17th C.               

Hun2001.jpg (79005 bytes)  Delia with pentlicami on mail hauberk (kolczudze), open at shoulder with hanging arms.

on top, a short kopieniak, 1566                                                   Right, Hungarian colpak of fur.

 

Quoting Martina Hribová, PhD. POZNÁMKY K MADGARSKÉMU OBLECENÍ V 9.- 17.STOL  http://www.kostym.cz/Cesky/4_Odivani/madari.pdf (Czech)

 

In the 16th C. on, townswomen and peasants wore aprons over shifts and skirts (catrinte, fota, and vilnic) in addition to shawls or mantles (csucha).

Kabats or dolmans, mid 15th C.

mg10.jpg (46399 bytes)

In 16th- 17 century  nobleman and their minions dressed colorfully in light blue , saffron, green, red.   Men wore jacket 'dolman' often decorated with embroidery of silver or gold thread.   

Peasants typically wore a simple outerwear of (usually sheep) skin unsheared , however this was very durable and effective against foul weather.  Herdsman and other peasants for  footwear  was typically constructed of one part leather that came to a point (gurgui ) or round-toed slipper-like shoes (kapca ), characteristic cloth -fustian and linen (fusta and linje ) and wool (icar ) or linen cullots or nickers  (“izmene” ).

Carpathian areas of Wallachia and Transylvania , as well as eastern parts of Moldavia and Bessarabie, had many variants for coats and jackets. Some were out of sheepskin fur as vests (burnuz and keptar ) or the same with sleeves (burke, gube ) out of stout felt (szur ), or out of thick wool (habanitsa) or shaggy frieze wool cloth (guba ). With respect to severe winters within carpathian areas men typically wore a heavy wool mantle (gugla ) with additional garments. One item universally associated with the Hungarian warrior is a wool overcoat, lined with welted leather or fur in winter. Wool coats were of several cuts , several shapes of sleeves , and went by various names (contesul, contos, chintes, chintus, kontesh, kontos, suba).  However wool might make practical & functional as well as rich fabrics , the latter of which were made garments including czamara, delia, fereaua, feiageaua (frezya) , mantaua,  suba which  graced wealthier men.  These items in general were worn with other garments like for example with typical caftans (caftanul , habanitsa ) or garments out of richly decorated expensive fabrics ( pancar (pants), szoknya, dolman, mente , guibeaua).

Women's headdress was a wrapped or shapped bonnet or coif (kapuriac, merame/neframe) or even stiffened with layers of felt or wood and decorated in trim, beads or embroidery (krype, parta).

 Hajducs, ( soldiers  of Stephan Báthory of Transylvania ), are also seen in kaftans or within dolmans underneath caftans with short sleeves , both reaching about knees or folded up to expose the knees (to make walking easier). These typically had small flat caps.

 Wallachian soldiers had similar garments, differing solely in the greater width of the collar of the dolman laying over the outer caftan and also with a characteristic highly tapered fur cap.

In 16th C Paintings we can see typical national garments from1520s king Lájose Hungary and Mary Habsburg , within whom there is noticeable influence of Western European fashion.

16hung10.jpg (13600 bytes) Fig 10. The King wears a garment made of gold floral brocade. Around his neck is 10 cm high standing collar and underneath shoulders is attached long sleeves. Under this is a linen shirt of fine and distinct cut and delicate silver embroidery of the stock and sleeves.

mg11.jpg (12299 bytes)Fig 11. The Queen’s garment is of a green silk damask. Much particularly version si můžete read over (5), alike like run over minutiae. After battle of Moháč in 1526 eastern part of  Hungary fell within the Ottoman empire.   Now fresco kirk under Wallachia and Moldávii scheme Turk within kaftan with turban. Nepřekvapí nor deed , that come down garments out of then dob are manufactured article out of fulmination ottoman manufactured article Aristocratic wear within vacation segments Hungary within rudiment 16. century were natured Germany Italian stylish elementary ( skin šuby , net wimples By sequel si however a-major vogue capture turkey elementary (fastened within šubách turban sheet Greek 12 13 heads _, valuable on which were finished in a traditional way.

In 16th- 17th century  nobleman as well as their retainers wore blue , saffron, green , and red. Men wore a coat (dolman ) with sleeves which had a slit so that the arms and hands can be out in warm weather and covered in cold.

mg12.jpg (9877 bytes) Fig 12 Often as well the coat (dolman ) had pleated sleeves , through which one could see a decorated shirt with needlework of silver and gold thread. Underneath this shirt there may be a plain undecorated undershirt. Often ornamentation included lace. Overcoat  was often the mente. Shirts were often decorated with needlework and various ornamentation as well as lace.  On the outside, a Mente jacket.

 

hungguy_15.jpg (23583 bytes)  Fig 15. This garment was by tradition worn by Gábor Bethlen for his wedding.  A mente out of Italian velvet embroidered with Silver and  gold  needlework. Within mantle as well as jacket was sewn rich decorations of silk twine to serve for fasteners (passamentre buttons). Additional  adornment of rich semi-precious stone or  silver studs. 

Fig 14 Eastern style  hat  colpak or "suveg“ with feather of  mostly eagle  or heron. 

Belts were adorned with silver  inlaid leather waistband or net-like  out of cord. Due to Turkish influence men wore  boots with  high knees. Called 'Čižmy' these were also worn by women and  youths  Color was in general bright red or saffron.  Spurs were worn with boots. 

 Common  people wore krpce, (soft slipper-like shoes).

 Wigs were not adopted as they generally were within western Europe. Men wore mustaches.

In the 16th century  ladies' saty (dresses) were made out of rich embroidered silk fabric or out of embroidered velvet paisley with silver or gold thread. Ladies wore garments fastened at the  neck and what as well as within range , when European fashion was to hide décolleté. Hungarian married women wore indoors gathered gowns of  silk or local style pinafore (apron-like outer garment) , with which might , however did not have to subsist attachments high share , which was actually bodice without sleeves , held together with  cords. (that is, the edges of the saty were connected by a cord, revealing a characteristic ‘V’ of the underlying shirt, coming to a point and meeting at the waist.) Underneath the bodice one sees an outerwear shirt (that is, a ‘soft’ garment intended to be worn visibly, rather than the more typical soft garments which are underwear) with voluminous gathers, and richly decorated sleeves and collars. Underneath the shirt was a subsequent underwear shirt.

Ladies footwear was underneath dress and so not much  seen. In 16th century  wore shoes with wooden internal structure and built-up heel.  

In the 17th century high wooden heels and wide boots were popular. Unmarried maidens wore hair wrapped in rich decoration in a style called "párta“ – 15 16 17 18 14 inspired by Medieval dress ; high extra decorated swath fabric arranged in the shape of a crown (bordered with lace?). Married women covered their hair with bonnets. Dresses or gowns could be quite costly due to application of many rich cameos, pearls, gold or gems. A garment of duchess Ference Rákocziho was richly decorated with  150 pearls . The  red dress with 12 pearls of Ilona Zrínyi was used to pay for the purchase of an entire village. Of course such wear was not just a fashion excess because it lent prestige to the family.

In this time, the typical Hungarian man’s dress consisted of dolmán ( well lined coat ), coat with short sleeves , ornamented sleeves of shirt , tight cullotes (breeches) with buttons on legs , tight cullotes similar to hose, shoes , mente (jacket)  cape of skin out of tiger , leopard or wolf , fur  cap with rosette and feathers

mg17.jpg (21374 bytes)Substantive elements of female fashion were :  under the overcoat a shirt with gathered sleeves ( embroidered or decorated with beads ), nicely lined,  usually decorated waistcoat , long gathered skirts with lace or velvety piping and pinafore also decorated with lace or needlework. Women also wore mantles , fur jackets and richly decorated bonnets. Girls uncovered their hair, however had it bound in a ‘párta’ headdress. Lower and higher stratum societies wore similar clothing , variance was within quality of fabrics and workmanship. Much attention was given to presentation of harmonious adornment. Black was for the  Hungarians mostly reserved for mourning clothing, brighter colors were the fashion for ladies clothing. mg18.jpg (16278 bytes)mg19.jpg (9123 bytes)

 

mg20.jpg (12201 bytes)HungarianBoot.jpg (62008 bytes)

mg22.jpg (16557 bytes)

 

Generalizing from available evidence....

Images in Paintings in museums make it is clear that Hungarians tended toward fitness and slim build. Hungarians invested their military man-at-arms with great importance, respecting his protection, justice and purity.

Further information may be gleaned from the images of the Magyar princes Torténete Nemes Nagy and Tompos (1). 19 20 21 22 23 24

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mg24.jpg (14356 bytes)

mgpat1.jpg (26265 bytes)

mgpat2.jpg (30223 bytes)

mgshirts.jpg (20998 bytes)

 

 

HapsburgDress1522.jpeg (29992 bytes) Hapsburg dress 1522

Hung1572.jpeg (20117 bytes) Hungarian 1572

Hungarian16thC.jpg (34071 bytes)

Hungarian_OttomanDuel.jpeg (52773 bytes)

hUNgarianCamp1500s.jpeg (46154 bytes)

Hungarians1566.jpeg (110316 bytes) 1566

HungHussar.jpg (64876 bytes) Hussar

Hun3.jpg (39141 bytes) Hungarian Cavalryman with short dolman, cinched with a fabric belt. Small Hungarian style cap. end of 16th C.

hungPike1545.jpg (27614 bytes) Pike 1545

1600_hung_camp.jpeg (116018 bytes)

 1600, note camp in background

 

KingHung_1600.jpeg (103952 bytes)

King, 1600

 

RoyalHung1660.jpeg (83563 bytes)

Hungarian Prince 1660

 

mg24.JPG (14356 bytes)

                                                  16th C.

Jhungar.jpg (131059 bytes) 1600 Hungarian, from ottoman costume book

JMoldavian.jpg (99204 bytes) Moldavian

Greek1682.jpeg (44155 bytes) Greek1682

Dress of Hungarian nobleman, red top over blue zupon with narrow arms.

Hun4001.jpg (17115 bytes) Delia  - Walachilian hospodar dress

Hun4002.jpg (10215 bytes) Hungarian nobleman, 2nd half of 17th C.

HungTownswoman1648.jpeg (99072 bytes)

1648 Hungarian Townswoman

batthyan_Hung_1660.jpeg (88613 bytes)

1660

 

HungAristocratLady17th.jpeg (30288 bytes)

 

Hung1680.jpeg (92156 bytes)

HungarianMiner17thC..jpeg (21560 bytes)

 

Hungarian Miner 17th C

 

MagarTeacherCantor.jpeg (36341 bytes) Cantor-Teacher

Hung1656.jpeg (68436 bytes)  1656                                       1656Hung21656.jpeg (85617 bytes)

Court female dress, 1672     

 

gyor1642.jpeg (112331 bytes) 1642

HungarianSaints.jpeg (71420 bytes) Hungarian Saints, 1670

19dw2.jpg (126361 bytes) Hungarian/Croatian

Transylv.jpg (107147 bytes) Transylvanian

CroatHungInf1665.jpg (17869 bytes)CroatOfficer1640.jpeg (19607 bytes)

ImperialArqu1640.jpeg (23964 bytes)Hussar2016st-1.jpg (141677 bytes)

Manast1.jpeg (197625 bytes)

mg22.JPG (16557 bytes)

mg23.JPG (15693 bytes)

HungHeardsmen_Teplice.jpeg (113273 bytes) Heardsmen 1680

HungarianCarriage.jpeg (91759 bytes) carriage

See also pictures of Croatian and Hungarian in the photos section of the Yahoo Group "Croatian History"