Dell' Aqua  Praxis

A XVI Century Polish Artillery Manual, Encompassing the Arts of Artillerymen, Sappers, and Pyrotechnicians

Gunnery, Siegecraft/engineering, and Fireworks

Selected Exeperts and Illustrations


A 17th C. Artillery Manual

(c) richard J. Orli, 2001


Ahakowice.gif (15259 bytes) Hackovice - Wall Guns, or very large muskets that would be used from forts or mounted on a tabor wagon.

Agalloper.gif (25559 bytes)Galloper, wheeled (smeriglio) and sleigh (rebadokino) varieties, with a one pounder gun.  These may be intended to be used as  part of tabor wagon train. The Poles set up their tabor wagons a moveable wall to protect their camp and sometimes to guard their flanks in field engagements. 

awood.gif (16459 bytes)Finding the right piece of wood for a carriage...

Agunncarriage.gif (36613 bytes)Gun and Carriage design, mid 1500s  The gun has trunnions, and is moderately short.

ACarriageMetalwork.gif (17673 bytes)The Ironwork for the carriage.  Note the proportion of the wheel in relation to the cannonball-size as a measuring standard. Note also that the entire cheek is shod in metal.  This allows the whole carriage to be lighter, yet still stay strong - critical for light and mobile artillery.  This is a major forward-looking design feature; all-in-all, this design is comparable to 18th century western european carriages.

ArealProblem.gif (15696 bytes)Mounting that barrel, always a big job.

Aimplements.gif (17569 bytes) Implements.

aimingaid.gif (25837 bytes) Aiming aid, unique look-through feature makes sense when you realize that the bores were seldom 'true' using old casting technologies.  This way, you are assured that you are aiming according to the line of the bore.  dell'Aqua also discusses the technology needed to grind out a bore using a lathe, a new technology that would not be mastered for a century yet.

Acartridge.gif (35884 bytes) Making a powder cartridge, measured according to ball diameters.  (Note: just to be clear, the balls shown are for measurement of scale only, and are not actual balls.)

Agrapeshot.gif (22161 bytes) Grapeshot fabrication.


Military Engineering - The Sapper

akoszach.gif (28913 bytes) Koszach - earthwork basket (Gabon). Tools shown include a wheelbarrow, shovel, mallet, strax/brush cutting knife, another knife.

Asandbags.gif (28401 bytes) Sandbags and Koszach defensive fieldwork

abridge.gif (44576 bytes) Bridging, showing a limbered carriage drawn by two horses harnessed to the pole and two in free harnesses. The bottom of the drawing illustrates the process of starting construction: swimming the first rope across. Other illustrations show the block and tackle design, and other details.


AlineFire2.gif (189171 bytes) Some matters of aiming...

ALineFire.gif (320363 bytes)


Rocketry and Bombs

arocket.gif (32572 bytes)Various types of rockets and projectile bombs were illustrated.  These are a sample page.

abomb.gif (26996 bytes)A bomb, or large grenade



Afireworks.jpg (57958 bytes)Firework displays are covered by dell'Aqua in some detail.  This sample's fascinating image illustrates a fashion that demands to be noticed.  Also, flaming swords, and a spinn' flamin' moon-face.


AfireEngin.jpg (51446 bytes)

After the fireworks, a fire engine to put down the blazes.