Delia, Kontuz, and Ferezja 

most illustrations are from Matusakaite's Lithuanian Apranga XVI-XVIII, 2003


What is a Ferezja ?  First, it is not a zupan, or dolman, because those are under kaftans and the Ferezja  is an outer kaftan. Every garment below under a Ferezja in the pictures below is a zupan.

Secondly,  it is not a kontuz (left) because it does not have the back-cut (like a kite with a tail) which is decisively characteristic of kontuz.  Basically, all outer kaftans used in Poland from 1630 on with this cut are kontuz.  Kontuz were only rarely  fur lined,  so were used under barkas or other overcoats in winter.

Thirdly it is not a delia (such as the on to the right from the 1630s) because the delia often has a hood (or an extra long collar which is theoretically doable as a hood), and a ferezja never does; it is typically lined with fur (not always) whereas the delia only sometimes is. It was considered not as suitable for campaign use (perhaps because of the lack of a hood), so is rather a fair-weather or even an indoor fancy-dress garment. (Fur and all... remember that in 17th C. winter "heated room" meant anything above 37F) Therefore, it is normally civilian or senior officer wear, and is not closely associated with practical military dress. Frezja1636.jpg (311141 bytes)

 As shown in the 1636 example to the left, over a zupon, it is “men’s outer dress with wide decorated arms, standing low collar, fastened with pentlicami/frogging , normally loosely fitting or worn as a mantle, sewn with wool or silk, lined with fur (most typically) or with silk” according to Turnau.  The sleeves are sometimes long, sometimes short.  Mostly it is a Frezja because it is called that by most folks.

FerzOriginal.jpg (59763 bytes)



As this pattern suggests, from original 1690s garment above left, it is a standard simple kaftan in cut. Unlike zupans and kontuz, it should not be tailored or fitted to the body, and should be rather loose.  The following are all examples of Frezja.

FerJZup172ndHalf.jpg (227414 bytes) Ferz7.jpg (53285 bytes)  Frezja 1690s, 1692 frezjaPatternB.jpg (53297 bytes)

Ferz17th2.jpg (28763 bytes) Light Frezja 2nd half 17th C. UNlinedFerz.jpg (88810 bytes)Ferz9.jpg (40078 bytes)

FerzBack.jpg (38152 bytes)FerziaFamily.jpg (42507 bytes)Frezja 1st half 17th C.Ferz1675.jpg (39251 bytes)                          about 1680

FerzSaphia.jpg (94786 bytes)  1698FerzSpouse.jpg (314173 bytes)Ferz17thC.jpg (50439 bytes)

Frezja 1680s, 1640s, 1620sFerzTrips.jpg (111558 bytes)                      FerzTwins.jpg (93019 bytes)first half 17thC

Definitions from Costume Dictionary (Slownik Ubiorow) by Irena Turnau, Semper, 1999.

Ferezeja/ferez/feri 16th-17th C. outer kaftan of muscovite boyer with long sleeves, wide at the shoulders, fastened with embroidered frogging on the whole front, with low or high standing collar, worn over zipun, of plain fabric or brocade silk. This fashion is thought to have been adopted from the Tatars, where as the ferezja may have come by way of Turkey.

Ferezja /ferczyka (from Turkish Fereze) men’s outer dress with wide decorated arms, standing low collar, fastened with pentlicami/frogging , normally loose or litely dopasowane, sewn with wool or silk, lined with fur (most typically) or with silk. Worn in Poland in the 16th –17th C as part of typical national dress over the Zupan.  Also worn by women as outerwear, and was the fashion in Istanbul as well.


Delia /delika/de;ounak/delura/delutka from Turkish degle – where it is a szata with wide arms.  Mens outerwear lined with fur, and lighter version with no fur, worn 16th to first half 17th C. Typically worn as a mantle (arms not in).  Often had a long collar – that reached mid-back – or hood. Fastened with buttons w/frogging.

Delia1610.jpg (221341 bytes) Ferz8.jpg (28004 bytes)DeliaZupan.jpg (68558 bytes)    

Illustrated: Delias  1620, 1630s, 1650s

Dolman/doloman/dowman, from Turkish dolama – dress of the Janissaries, and Hungarian dolmany.   16th to first half 17th C. Under kaftan worn as military dress, e.g. by Haiduks. Length to knee or lower, narrow arms, fastened with buttons, often with frogging.