Delia, Kontuz, and Ferezja
most illustrations are from Matusakaite's Lithuanian Apranga XVI-XVIII, 2003
What is a Ferezja ? First, it is not a zupan, or dolman, because those are under kaftans and the Ferezja is an outer kaftan. Every garment below under a Ferezja in the pictures below is a zupan.
Secondly, it is not a kontuz (left) because it does not have the back-cut (like a kite with a tail) which is decisively characteristic of kontuz. Basically, all outer kaftans used in Poland from 1630 on with this cut are kontuz. Kontuz were only rarely fur lined, so were used under barkas or other overcoats in winter.
Thirdly it is not a delia (such as
the on to the right from the 1630s) because the delia often has a hood (or an extra long
collar which is theoretically doable as a hood), and a ferezja never does; it is typically lined
with fur (not always) whereas the delia only sometimes is. It was considered not as suitable for
campaign use (perhaps because of the lack of a hood), so is rather a fair-weather
or even an indoor fancy-dress garment. (Fur
and all... remember that in 17th C. winter "heated room" meant
anything above 37F) Therefore,
it is normally civilian or senior officer wear, and is not closely associated
with practical military dress.
As shown in the 1636 example to the left, over a zupon, it is “men’s outer dress with wide decorated arms, standing low collar, fastened with pentlicami/frogging , normally loosely fitting or worn as a mantle, sewn with wool or silk, lined with fur (most typically) or with silk” according to Turnau. The sleeves are sometimes long, sometimes short. Mostly it is a Frezja because it is called that by most folks.
As this pattern suggests, from original 1690s garment above left, it is a standard simple kaftan in cut. Unlike zupans and kontuz, it should not be tailored or fitted to the body, and should be rather loose. The following are all examples of Frezja.
Frezja 1690s, 1692
Frezja 2nd half 17th C.
2nd half 17th C.
Frezja 1st half 17th C. about 1680
Frezja 1680s, 1640s, 1620s first half 17thC
Definitions from Costume Dictionary (Slownik Ubiorow) by Irena Turnau, Semper, 1999.
Ferezeja/ferez/feri 16th-17th C.
outer kaftan of muscovite boyer with
long sleeves, wide at the shoulders, fastened with embroidered frogging on the
whole front, with low or high standing collar, worn over zipun, of plain fabric
or brocade silk. This fashion is thought to have been adopted from the Tatars,
where as the ferezja may have come by way of Turkey.
Ferezja /ferczyka (from Turkish Fereze) men’s outer dress with wide decorated arms, standing low collar, fastened with pentlicami/frogging , normally loose or litely dopasowane, sewn with wool or silk, lined with fur (most typically) or with silk. Worn in Poland in the 16th –17th C as part of typical national dress over the Zupan. Also worn by women as outerwear, and was the fashion in Istanbul as well.
Delia /delika/de;ounak/delura/delutka from Turkish degle – where it is a szata with wide arms. Mens outerwear lined with fur, and lighter version with no fur, worn 16th to first half 17th C. Typically worn as a mantle (arms not in). Often had a long collar – that reached mid-back – or hood. Fastened with buttons w/frogging.
Illustrated: Delias 1620, 1630s, 1650s
Dolman/doloman/dowman, from Turkish dolama – dress of the Janissaries, and Hungarian dolmany. 16th to first half 17th C. Under kaftan worn as military dress, e.g. by Haiduks. Length to knee or lower, narrow arms, fastened with buttons, often with frogging.