17th C. Muscovite / Russian Costume tidbits



Some equipments details from the Hamza

Information for new members

Patterns (Details on Design and Construction) (

Other Pages:

General Overview - Polish-Lithuanian Dress

Cossack Uniforms and Dress

Hungarian Dress

Ottoman Dress

Tatar Dress

Cossacks - A brief history

Volga Cossacks in Siberia


 Peter I in late 1680s from Artillery of Peter the Great

Fredrich Romanov, 1672      



ruinfequip.jpg (23785 bytes) Pike head, 1st half 17th C,

Swords, 2nd half 17th C,

Infantry Helmets, 2nf half 17th C.


above from Muscovite Foote in the 17th C. in Zeughaus Magazine No 1, 2002

Kossackgrearz2.jpeg (96322 bytes)Kossackgrearz3.jpeg (92772 bytes)

mmMusArtillery34.jpg (30731 bytes) 1634 Artillery

HussarRuss.jpeg (27478 bytes) Muscovite Hussar

mmMusHA34.jpg (44879 bytes) late 16-early 17th C. Cavalry         


 Buffcoat 'caftan' (labeled as a zupan in the article), 17th C. 

Passamentre peltcami buttons are gone.




drzeworytXVII.jpeg (22652 bytes)17.jpeg (49313 bytes)

ruinfpike.jpg (51761 bytes) Muscovite Pikemen  1653-54  

Right top, 1673 Streltsi infantry, right bottom 1680,

Stresli4.jpeg (58913 bytes)  Streltsi.  The Streltsi (from 'archer') was originally Ivan the Terrible's elite bodyguard, and 2 extra -strength well uniformed regiments was the professional core of the muscovite army.  Eventually several other regiments were added, of some what lesser quality, until there were 13 in 1699.  

mmstres34.jpg (37516 bytes) 1634 Streltsi




Berdish Axe


krus.jpg (48997 bytes) Russian infantry (1670), kupiec (1600), Boyar,

The last one to the right is a Cossack (mid 1600s).


ruscaftanl.jpg (63032 bytes) Infantry Caftan 1653

14CRus_shapka.jpeg (38912 bytes) 15th C. hat

15thCBagApplique.jpeg (78110 bytes)  15th C appliqué on a bag

zapar_cossack.jpeg (27904 bytes)

mmSomolensk34.jpg (75773 bytes) Voiovoide of Smolensk 1634mmRomanov34.jpg (32559 bytes) M. Romanov, 1634


From : Maria Gutkowska-Rychlewsk a,  Historia Ubiorow

RusA1.jpg (36077 bytes)  Legation of Boyars 1576

RusA1001.jpg (47186 bytes) Legation of Boyars to court of Emperor Maxmillian I, szuby with pentlicami button lace, colpack hats 1518.

RusA1002.jpg (26221 bytes) Noble's Szuba, 1525                                  

RusA1004.jpg (13206 bytes) Moscovite Legation to Cracow, 1605                                                 Right,  Legate, 1605

RusA1005.jpg (16687 bytes) a. Zipun, b. zipun worn by peasants. 

RusA1007.jpg (48964 bytes) a. Prince, 16th-17th C. b. Ruthien merchant with szuba; c. Ruthen Boyar 

RusA1008.jpg (21404 bytes)  Turkish kaftan, 17th C,  b. c.d Boyar's kaftan. 

RusA1009.jpg (8001 bytes)Czuha with Turkish silk kuszakiem 17th C.         

               Right, Terlik fastened with buttons, 16th C. 


RusA1010.jpg (29398 bytes)  Boyer in Parade kaftan, high collar 17th C.; short rus kaftan with  goat..?

mmMusCav34.jpg (55524 bytes) Late 16th C. Muscovite Cavalry gear




late16th C. Muscovite Cavalry gear

The padded quilted jacket has metal plates within for armor.





RusA1012.jpg (19126 bytes)a. Ferezja over kaftan with high collar,  higher hat of fox fur "gorlatnaja"

b. szuba-coat tied with cord, low hat, 1st half 17th C.

c. tafia cap, decorated with pearls and semi-precious stones; odnoriatka with buttons

RusA1013.jpg (13282 bytes)17th C. szuba coats.

RusA1014.jpg (13781 bytes) 16th C.  (existing antique garment)

Rus1.JPG (80042 bytes) a. Surviving caftan garment work by Peter the Great, with Penltic passamentre button-lace "frogging", narrow forearms. Late 17th C. 

b. Surviving Boyar Muscovite kaftan with pants, end of 17th C. 



rus3.jpg (7656 bytes) top colored soroczka with narrow arms, belted, house dress, 17th C.

rus2.jpg (39897 bytes) a. patterned tielogreja, 17th C;  b. Tielogreje with smooth silk, with peltic button lace. c. tielogreja of boyer, lined with fur, fur hat. 

rus5.jpg (10423 bytes) a. Letnik with 'ears' - wide decoratively-hemmed arms. b. Letnik, high hat of fur, small fur ozerelie, 17th C. 

rus6.jpg (26232 bytes)a. Top szubka laid on, sewn on pearls over fur, on fur is laid out shawl ubrus; c. Girl's.  17th C.

rus2.jpg (39897 bytes)

rus10.jpg (51795 bytes) Szuba, worn one arm in, one out.  17th C. muskovite szuba with small furred collar 1598; c. Peasant Szubka, 17th C. 

rus10001.jpg (23237 bytes)  duszegreja, a top without arms, 17th -18th C.

rus10002.jpg (50725 bytes) embroidered duszegreja 

rus10003.jpg (40696 bytes) a. c. 'Crown' style caps.  18th C.;  b. kika with pendents (riasami) 1st half 17th C. d.e. unmarried girls of the Court, background of a Peter the Great painting, late 17th C.  

rus10004.jpg (30059 bytes) a. scarf, from painting detail, b. white woman's hats, over scarfs 17th C. c. Rantuchy 17th -18th C.


17th C. Russian costume, 1635   as witnessed by Adam Olearius

Translated by John Davies, 1662

When anyone transgresses somehow against his Tsarist Majesty or learns that he has fallen into disgrace, he allows his hair to grow long and in disorder for as long as the disgrace endures.

Married women roll their hair up under their hats, young ladies leave it hanging down their backs in a braid from which a red tassel hangs. They cut off the hair of children under ten years of age, leaving only
long locks on either side.  To distinguish girls from boys, they hang large silver or bronze rings in the girls' ears.

The men's clothing is like the Greeks'.  Their shirts are wide but short, scarcely covering the seat; the collar is flat and smooth, without pleats; and the back from the shoulder down is covered with a triangular [piece of cloth] and sewn with red silk.  Some have gussets under the armpits, and also on the sides, made very skillfully of red satin.

The wealthy have three shirt collars (a good thumb in width) as well as a strip in the front (from top to bottom) and the places around the cuffs, embroidered with multicolored tied silk and sometimes with gold and pearls; such decorative collars extend out over the cloaks; they Are fastened with two large pearls, or with gold or silver clasps.

Their trousers, which are broad at the top, may be drawn in or opened out by strings.  Over the shirt and trousers, they wear tight cloaks called "kaftans" which are like our jerkins; but theirs hang to the knees and have long sleeves which are gathered into folds at the wrists.  The collar, which rises behind the head, is a fourth of an ell long and broad, lined on the underside with velvet, and with gold brocade among the wealthy.

Over the kaftans some people wear still another garment which reaches down to the calf or below and is called a feriaz'.  Both of these garments are made of cotton, calico (kindiak), taffeta, damask, or satin, depending on what the wearer can afford.  The feriaz' is lined with cotton.  When they go out, over all these they don ankle-length cloaks, which in most cases are made of violet-blue, brown (the color
of tanned leather), or dark green cloth, but sometimes of many-colored damask, satin, or gold brocade.

These outer kaftans, or cloaks, have wide collars; and in front, from top to bottom, and on the sides, they are drawn together with strings embroidered with gold or with pearls.  Sometimes long tassels hang
from the strings.  The sleeves are almost the same length as those of the kaftans, but very narrow.  They are gathered at the wrists in to many folds so that [in putting one on] one is barely able to push his
hands through.  Sometimes when walking, they allow the sleeves to hang free below the hands.  Some slaves and rogues carry stones or bludgeons in them, which are difficult to detect.  Frequently, especially at night, they attack and murder people with these weapons.

All Russian men wear hats.  During public ceremonies the princes, boyars, and state counselors wear hats of black fox or sable, an ell high.  Otherwise, they wear velvet hats like ours, lined and trimmed with black fox and sable; however, not much fur protrudes.  These hats are sewn on both sides with gold or strings of pearls.  Ordinary citizens wear hats of white felt in summer and of cloth, lined with some plain fur, in winter.

For the most part, like the Poles, they wear short shoes, made of either ordinary or Persian Morocco leather and pointed in front.  They know nothing of cordovan.  Women, particularly young women, wear shoes
with very high heels, some of them one-fourth of an ell high.  The lower parts of these heels are nailed all about with fine nails.  In such footgear they cannot run much, because the toes of the slippers hardly reach the ground.

The ladies' attire is much like the men's except that the outer garment is wider, though of the same cloth.  The garments of wealthy women are trimmed in front with fringed braid and other golden laces; others are decorated with strings and tassels, and sometimes with large silver and pewter buttons.  The sleeve is not fully sewn above so that they may thrust their hands through and allow the sleeves to hang.

On their heads they wear broad and loose hats of gold brocade, satin, or damask, with gold laces sometimes sewn with gold and pearls, and embellished with beaver fur.

Formerly the Germans, the Dutch, the French and other foreigners who had come to live among them, either in the service of the Grand Duke or for trade, affected Russian clothes and styles.  They were even
constrained to do so in order to avoid being insulted and set upon by malicious scoundrels.

[In 1652 the Patriarch  ordered  that all foreigners divest themselves of Russian clothes and dress in the costume of their own country.

[The Prince of Moscow admired foreign clothing and ordered Polish and German clothes for himself.  ]


from Muscovite Banners in the 17th C. in Zeughaus Magazine No 1, 2002

ruflg002.jpg (23559 bytes)

ruflg.jpg (65658 bytes) Period flag sketch

ruflg001.jpg (32316 bytes) Infantry Flags, numbered by company.

ruflg003.jpg (8046 bytes) Finials (end of flag pole thingies)

ruflg004.jpg (10600 bytes) More flags




More Russian Costumes http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/