I in late 1680s from Artillery of Peter the Great
Pike head, 1st half 17th C,
Swords, 2nd half 17th C,
Infantry Helmets, 2nf half 17th C.
above from Muscovite Foote in the 17th C. in
Zeughaus Magazine No 1, 2002
late 16-early 17th C.
Buffcoat 'caftan' (labeled as a zupan in
the article), 17th C.
Passamentre peltcami buttons are gone.
Muscovite Pikemen 1653-54
Right top, 1673 Streltsi infantry,
right bottom 1680,
Streltsi. The Streltsi (from 'archer') was originally
Ivan the Terrible's elite bodyguard, and 2 extra -strength well uniformed
regiments was the professional core of the muscovite army.
Eventually several other regiments were added, of some what lesser
quality, until there were 13 in 1699.
Russian infantry (1670), kupiec (1600), Boyar,
The last one to the right is a Cossack (mid 1600s).
Infantry Caftan 1653
15th C. hat
15th C appliqué on a bag
Voiovoide of Smolensk 1634
M. Romanov, 1634
From : Maria Gutkowska-Rychlewsk
a, Historia Ubiorow
Legation of Boyars 1576
Legation of Boyars to court of Emperor Maxmillian I, szuby with
pentlicami button lace, colpack hats 1518.
Moscovite Legation to Cracow,
Right, Legate, 1605
a. Zipun, b. zipun worn by peasants.
a. Prince, 16th-17th C. b. Ruthien merchant with szuba; c. Ruthen
Turkish kaftan, 17th C, b. c.d Boyar's kaftan.
with Turkish silk kuszakiem 17th C.
Right, Terlik fastened with buttons, 16th C.
Boyer in Parade kaftan, high collar 17th C.; short rus kaftan with
Late 16th C. Muscovite Cavalry gear
C. Muscovite Cavalry gear
The padded quilted jacket has metal plates within
Ferezja over kaftan with high collar, higher hat of fox fur "gorlatnaja"
b. szuba-coat tied with cord, low hat, 1st half
c. tafia cap, decorated with pearls and
semi-precious stones; odnoriatka with buttons
C. szuba coats.
16th C. (existing antique garment)
a. Surviving caftan garment work by Peter the Great, with Penltic
passamentre button-lace "frogging", narrow forearms. Late 17th C.
b. Surviving Boyar Muscovite kaftan with pants,
end of 17th C.
top colored soroczka with narrow arms,
belted, house dress, 17th C.
a. patterned tielogreja, 17th C; b. Tielogreje with smooth
silk, with peltic button lace. c. tielogreja of boyer, lined with
fur, fur hat.
a. Letnik with 'ears' - wide decoratively-hemmed arms. b. Letnik, high hat
of fur, small fur ozerelie, 17th C.
Top szubka laid on, sewn on pearls over fur, on fur is laid out
shawl ubrus; c. Girl's. 17th C.
Szuba, worn one arm in, one out. 17th C. muskovite szuba with small furred
collar 1598; c. Peasant Szubka, 17th C.
duszegreja, a top without arms, 17th -18th C.
a. c. 'Crown' style caps. 18th C.; b. kika with pendents (riasami)
1st half 17th C. d.e. unmarried girls of the Court, background of a Peter
the Great painting, late 17th C.
a. scarf, from painting detail, b. white woman's hats, over scarfs 17th C.
c. Rantuchy 17th -18th C.
C. Russian costume, 1635 as witnessed by Adam Olearius,
by John Davies, 1662
When anyone transgresses somehow against his Tsarist Majesty or learns
that he has fallen into disgrace, he allows his hair to grow long and in
disorder for as long as the disgrace endures.
Married women roll their hair up under their hats, young ladies leave it hanging down their backs in a braid from which a red tassel hangs.
They cut off the hair of children under ten years of age, leaving only
long locks on either side. To distinguish girls from boys, they hang
large silver or bronze rings in the girls' ears.
The men's clothing is like the Greeks'. Their shirts are wide but short, scarcely covering the seat; the collar is flat and smooth,
without pleats; and the back from the shoulder down is covered with a triangular [piece of cloth] and sewn with red silk. Some have
gussets under the armpits, and also on the sides, made very skillfully of red
The wealthy have three shirt collars (a good thumb in width) as well as a strip in the front (from top to bottom) and the places around the
cuffs, embroidered with multicolored tied silk and sometimes with gold and pearls; such decorative collars extend out over the cloaks; they
Are fastened with two large pearls, or with gold or silver clasps.
Their trousers, which are broad at the top, may be drawn in or opened out by strings. Over the shirt and trousers, they wear tight cloaks
called "kaftans" which are like our jerkins; but theirs hang to
the knees and have long sleeves which are gathered into folds at the wrists. The collar, which rises behind the head, is a fourth of an
ell long and broad, lined on the underside with velvet, and with gold brocade among the wealthy.
Over the kaftans some people wear still another garment which reaches down to the calf or below and is called a feriaz'. Both of these
garments are made of cotton, calico (kindiak), taffeta, damask, or satin, depending on what the wearer can afford. The feriaz' is lined
with cotton. When they go out, over all these they don ankle-length cloaks, which in most cases are made of violet-blue, brown (the color
of tanned leather), or dark green cloth, but sometimes of many-colored damask, satin, or gold brocade.
These outer kaftans, or cloaks, have wide collars; and in front, from top to bottom, and on the sides, they are drawn together with strings
embroidered with gold or with pearls. Sometimes long tassels hang
from the strings. The sleeves are almost the same length as those of
the kaftans, but very narrow. They are gathered at the wrists in to many folds so that [in putting one on] one is barely able to push his
hands through. Sometimes when walking, they allow the sleeves to
hang free below the hands. Some slaves and rogues carry stones or bludgeons in them, which are difficult to detect. Frequently,
especially at night, they attack and murder people with these weapons.
All Russian men wear hats. During public ceremonies the princes, boyars, and state counselors wear hats of black fox or sable, an ell
high. Otherwise, they wear velvet hats like ours, lined and trimmed with black fox and sable; however, not much fur protrudes. These
hats are sewn on both sides with gold or strings of pearls. Ordinary
citizens wear hats of white felt in summer and of cloth, lined with some plain fur, in winter.
For the most part, like the Poles, they wear short shoes, made of either ordinary or Persian Morocco leather and pointed in front.
They know nothing of cordovan. Women, particularly young women, wear
with very high heels, some of them one-fourth of an ell high. The lower parts of these heels are nailed all about with fine nails. In
such footgear they cannot run much, because the toes of the slippers hardly reach the ground.
The ladies' attire is much like the men's except that the outer garment is wider, though of the same cloth. The garments of wealthy
women are trimmed in front with fringed braid and other golden laces; others are decorated with strings and tassels, and sometimes with
large silver and pewter buttons. The sleeve is not fully sewn above so that they may thrust their hands through and allow the sleeves to
On their heads they wear broad and loose hats of gold brocade, satin, or damask, with gold laces
sometimes sewn with gold and pearls, and embellished with beaver fur.
Formerly the Germans, the Dutch, the French and other foreigners who had come to live among them, either in the service of the Grand Duke
or for trade, affected Russian clothes and styles. They were even
constrained to do so in order to avoid being insulted and set upon by malicious scoundrels.
[In 1652 the Patriarch ordered that all foreigners divest
themselves of Russian clothes and dress in the costume of their own country.
[The Prince of Moscow admired foreign clothing and ordered Polish and German clothes for himself. ]
from Muscovite Banners
in the 17th C. in Zeughaus
Magazine No 1, 2002
Period flag sketch
Infantry Flags, numbered by company.
Finials (end of flag pole thingies)